2. Considerations and Influencing Factors
There are many factors to consider in producing accurate software test estimates. The following guidelines are based on common experiences and industry best practices.
Schedule Margin Inputs
Good estimation includes adding some margin in the schedule – the class, size and complexity of the project helps determine the appropriate reserve. The bigger and more complex the project, the more margin time needed. Software schedule margins may be included in overall project development schedule margins; if so, margins are typically bigger in Phase A/B of the life cycle, and reduced when entering Phase C. It is vital that margins are realistic and based on defendable rationale. A realistic margin helps ensure maximum test coverage and takes into consideration the inevitable delays that occur. Although estimates are highly dependent on the software class, size and complexity, the following rules-of-thumb for the schedule duration of the various parts of software development activity are profitably used when quantifying the margin:
- Integration and testing of flight software can be between 22 percent and 40 percent of the total schedule.
- Ground software integration and test (mostly new development) is about 25 percent of the schedule.
- Ground data software integration and test (with significant inheritance) is about 16 percent of schedule.
Availability of Resources for Estimated Period
A good estimate will include a fixed number of resources for each test cycle. If the number of resources declines, then the estimate can be re-visited and updated accordingly when assessing if the availability of test beds and environments and simulators is adequate, account for the use (shared, in series, in parallel) of these resources by the development and test teams. Software test estimation should always consider events like long vacations planned by the team members to help ensure that the estimations are realistic.
Estimate Early and Update as Necessary
In the early planning stage, frequently re-visit the test estimations and make modifications as needed. Estimates are not usually extended once an agreement has been made unless there are major changes in requirements. Estimates will improve as more information becomes known about the requirements, design, code, environments, test levels, and use cases.
Remember Your Past Experiences
Past experiences play a significant role when preparing estimates. Utilizing documented lessons learned and pitfalls encountered in previous projects can help avoid some of these difficulties. In addition, analysis of past successes in delivering on-time products can provide direction for the things to consider repeating. Keep in mind that the overall growth in software complexity and size for flight systems are two factors to be taken into consideration in the estimation process.
Consider the Scope of Project
Identify project software test goals and software product deliverables. Factors to be considered differ among projects, application domain, etc. For some projects, typically the test cycle includes test case development, execution, and regression testing. Other projects may include setting up one or more test beds, test plan/procedure development, generating and analyzing test data, test scripts, etc. Estimations, therefore, are to be based on all of these factors. Project limitations such as cost, schedule, and technical characteristics are also to be considered.
Does your team have the appropriate skills and knowledge?
Knowing your team's strengths and weaknesses can help you estimate testing tasks more accurately. Consider the fact that all team members may not yield the same productivity level and may not possess the skills to perform tasks independently. Some people can execute tasks faster, some are more accurate, and some are both fast and accurate. While this is not a major factor, it can impact product deliverables. Proper skills, experience, and attitudes in the project team, especially in the managers and key players are discriminating factors. Remember, the time to complete a project is not proportional to the number of people working on the project.
Reuse of Test Assets
Depending on the software test goals, another consideration is reuse of test assets such as test plans, procedures, cases, environments, tools, scripts, test beds, etc. In the case of previously tested software that is in the maintenance phase with only minimal software enhancements, test procedures may only require a small amount of effort to update. For a new project, review the local requirements, related to testing, that are flowed down from NPR 7150.2, NASA Software Engineering Requirements, for the class of software being tested to determine the usability of any existing assets.
Process maturity plays a significant role in accurately estimating software test activities. For example, Class A/B and/or safety-critical projects are required to have a more rigorous process than a Class D non-safety-critical project (in accordance with NPR 7150.2). The basis of estimate is more credible in an organization when test methods and activities are infused into the project vs. being tacked on at the end. Clearly defined interfaces and expectations between the test team and the rest of the organization make it easier to predict (estimate) the task. A managed configuration and change management process for test work products saves time and effort at the end of the product life cycle. Timely and reliable bug fixes, realistic test schedules, timely arrival of high-quality test deliverables, and proper execution of early test phases (unit and integration) all provide a basis for software test estimates.
Lines of Code and Complexity
A major consideration in developing good software test estimates is an understanding of the number of lines of code, complexity, classification, safety criticality, programming language, and code structure of the software under test. Object-oriented languages and component-based indices tend to increase complexity making test estimates challenging. The complexity includes the number of requirements needing verification through testing, how well the architecture and the design can be assessed by testing, the number of use cases or operational scenarios to be evaluated, and the extent of off-nominal testing.
Another factor in preparing effective estimations is identification of an adequate, dedicated, and secure test environment and a separate, adequate development debugging environment. Competent, responsive test environment support also plays a part in the accuracy of test estimates.
A key indicator in software test estimation is automated testing. Automation helps with recurring test activities, such as regression testing. There is a tradeoff to use or not to use automation during testing. It is very time consuming to build automated test suites, but if the project desires a high rate of repeatability, test automation can be useful. Projects should stay away from using automation when it does not support testing goals. Automation estimates should be based on quantifiable repeatability and reusability factors. Automation may not realize benefits for a one-time effort.
Consider the Test-Fix Cycle
The test-fix cycle is one of the most common pitfalls in software test estimation. Software size/complexity, number of stakeholders, distributed nature of the test activities, availability of resources, configuration management maturity, and knowledge/skill of team members all play a role in estimating the test-fix cycle. The test cycle depends on the stability of the build. If the build is not stable, more time is needed to test-fix, therefore, extending the test cycle.
Test reporting is a major activity not usually accounted for in the test estimate. Reporting needs are based on process maturity and methodologies and require management involvement to identify reporting needs and evolve estimations.