bannera

Book A.
Introduction

Book B.
7150 Requirements Guidance

Book C.
Topics

Tools,
References, & Terms

SPAN
(NASA Only)

Versions Compared

Key

  • This line was added.
  • This line was removed.
  • Formatting was changed.
Comment: Migration of unmigrated content due to installation of a new plugin


{tabsetup: | | | | Resources} {div3:id=
Wiki Markup
Tabsetup
1. Purpose
1.
Purpose
12.
Definition
23.
The
Basic
WBS
34.
Common
Issues
45.
Resources


Div
idtabs-1
} h1.

1.

Purpose

Topic

7.

17

5 provides

guidance

on

the

development

of

a

work

breakdown

structure

(WBS)

for

software

on

projects.

The

WBS

provides

a

common

planning

framework

to

use

in

estimating

the

scope

of

a

project.

{div3} {div3:id=


Div
idtabs-2
} h1.

2.

Definition

Per

the

[

NASA

Systems

Engineering

Handbook|https://nen.nasa.gov/syseng/NASA-Systems-Engineering-Handbook.pdf] (Section

Handbook

sweref
273
273
 (Section 6.1.2.1)

^1^

,

a

work

breakdown

structure

is

a

hierarchical

breakdown

of

the

work

necessary

to

complete

a

project.

The

WBS

can

be

product

- or

process

-oriented.

A

product-oriented

WBS

has

work

activities

grouped

by

the

product

or

service

they

support.

A

process-oriented

WBS has work activities associated with the processes used included in the appropriate WBS element. ^3^ The WBS provides the framework to plan, organize, and control a \\ project. ^2^ Excellent information on the development and usage of the WBS can be found in

WBS includes in the appropriate WBS element the work activities associated with the processes being used.

sweref
389
389
The WBS provides the framework to plan, organize, and control a project.
sweref
388
388

Excellent information on the development and usage of the WBS can be found in NASA/SP-2010-3404

[

, NASA

Work

Breakdown

Structure

(WBS)

Handbook.|http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110012671&hterms=wbs+handbook+wbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchallany%7Cmode%2520matchall%26Ntk%3DAll%7CAll%26N%3D0%26Ntt%3Dwbs%7Cwbs%2520handbook#.T3CNkS3IkBQ.email] ^4^ Additionally, both the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook ^1^ and the "CMMI for Development, Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement" ^2^ provide further guidance on the development of WBS structures containing software. The NASA Software Engineering curriculum, especially {term:SWE 301} ^3^ , addresses the use of the WBS for software on projects. These resources are cited in the [Resources tab of this guidance topic|http://nasa7150.onconfluence.com/display/7150/7.17+-+Work+Breakdown+Structures+That+Include+Software#_tabs-5]. {div3} {div3:id=tabs-3} h1. 3. The Basic WBS A project's software may be a stand-alone system or exist as part of a larger system or project. For example, for a space flight project, software may be shown under the Avionics subsystem. For both types, the WBS developer needs to be aware of the responsibilities required of his or her project. !topic 7.17 Fig 1.jpg|border=0! !Topic 7.17 Fig 2.jpg|border=0! The WBS should be updated iteratively over the project life cycle . The initial WBS is used for early estimating of cost and schedule. The detailed WBS helps organize and control the work done by populating the project's cost plans and schedule. A companion WBS dictionary should also be developed that fully describes the work being done including the title and objective of the element, expected products/services from each element, and the dependencies between elements. The Software Development Plan ([SWE-102|SWE-102]) is a place to record the WBS of the life cycle processes and activities. {div3} {div3:id=tabs-4} h1. 4. Common Issues There are several work activities that are often forgotten in developing the WBS: * Process planning and monitoring activities * Requirement engineering activities * Formal review activities * Development activities * Stakeholder activities * Training activities * Planning, documenting, and tracking of commitments from other organizations {div3} {div3:id=tabs-5} h1. 5. Resources The following are excellent resources for help with developing and using a WBS. # [NASA Systems Engineering Handbook|https://nen.nasa.gov/syseng/NASA-Systems-Engineering-Handbook.pdf], NASA SP-2007-6105, Rev1, NASA Headquarters, 2007. # Chrissis, M.B., et al. (March, 2011). CMMI for Development Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement; Third Edition. SEI Series in Software Engineering. Addison-Wesley Professional. # APPEL Software Engineering Management 301 (SWE 301). Course from APPEL: Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership. Located via the NASA website at http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/curriculum/courses/appel_swe-301.html. # NASA SP-2010-3404. ["NASA Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook."|http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110012671&hterms=wbs+handbook+wbs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchallany%7Cmode%2520matchall%26Ntk%3DAll%7CAll%26N%3D0%26Ntt%3Dwbs%7Cwbs%2520handbook#.T3CNkS3IkBQ.email] NASA Headquarters. January 2010. {div3} {tabclose}

Handbook.

sweref
390
390
Additionally, both the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook
sweref
273
273
 and the "CMMI for Development, Guidelines for Process Integration and Product Improvement"
sweref
388
388
provide further guidance on the development of WBS structures containing software. The NASA Software Engineering curriculum, especially SWE-301 (Software Engineering Course for Software Fundamentals)
sweref
389
389
, addresses the use of the WBS for software on projects. These resources are cited in the
Tablink
1Resources tab of this topic
tab5
linktextResources tab
.


Div
idtabs-3

3. The Basic WBS

A project's software may be a stand-alone system or exist as part of a larger system or project. For example, for a space flight project, software may be shown under the Avionics subsystem. For both types, the WBS developer needs to be aware of the responsibilities required of his or her project.

Image Added

As another example consider the following list-oriented approach to a WBS. Again, the use of NASA/SP-2010-3404, NASA Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook,

sweref
390
390
will help in the development of the lower levels of the WBS elements.

  1. SW Management (incl budget, schedule, contractor mgmt, risk, CM, training, IV&V coord, lesson learned, etc)
  2. SW Requirements Management
  3. SW Testbed Management
  4. CSCI Development
  5. CSCI Test
  6. CSC Test
  7. Sustaining Engineering
  8. Security (physical and IT)

The project's software may also be developed in the context of a product-driven structure. Lower level development of the WBS will include the approach to software development for the individual component or system to be produced in the sub-element. The following figure suggests several approaches for this type of WBS.

Image Added

The WBS is updated iteratively over the project life cycle . The initial WBS is used for early estimating of cost and schedule. The detailed WBS helps organize and control the work done by populating the project's cost plans and schedule.

A companion WBS dictionary, which is also developed, fully describes the work being done including the title and objective of the element, expected products/services from each element, and the dependencies between elements.

The Software Development Plan (SWE-102) is a place to record the WBS of the life cycle processes and activities.


Div
idtabs-4

4. Common Issues

There are several work activities that are often forgotten in developing the WBS:

  • Process planning and monitoring activities
  • Requirement engineering activities
  • Formal review activities
  • Development activities
  • Stakeholder activities
  • Training activities
  • Planning, documenting, and tracking of commitments from other organizations


Div
idtabs-5

5. Resources

refstable-topic

5.1 Tools

toolstable-topic