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Table of Terms

This table of terms includes acronyms and definitions that are used throughout the NASA Software Engineering Handbook (SWEHB). Acronyms are usually explained within the text in Books A through Book C using definitions that are revealed when one's cursor 'hovers' over the acronym.

 

 

TermDefinition

**

Center Director or the Center Director's designed Engineering Technical Authority (joint Engineering TA & SMA TA if delegated)

AADL

Architecture Analysis & Design Language

abstraction

Abstraction captures and represents only those details about an object that are relevant to the current perspective.

Accredit

The official acceptance of a software development tool, model, or simulation, (including associated data) to use for a specific purpose. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

Accuracy

The difference between a parameter or variable (or a set of parameters or variables) within a model, simulation, or experiment and the true value or the assumed true value (Definition from source document: NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

ACM

Association for Computing Machinery

Acq_Plan

Acquisition Planning. Acq_Plan is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Acquisition Planning.

Acquirer

(1) stakeholder that acquires or procures a product or service from a supplier (ISO/IEC 12207, ISO/IEC 15288) (2) individual or organization that specifies requirements for and accepts delivery of a new or modified software product and its documentation (IEEE 1058-1998) (3) individual or organization that acquires or procures a system, software product or software service from a supplier (ISO/IEC 25040) Note: The acquirer may be internal or external to the supplier organization. Acquisition of a software product may involve, but does not necessarily require, a legal contract or a financial transaction between the acquirer and supplier. From the IEEE resource listed in the blue box at the top of this terms list.

ADPE

Automated Data Processing Equipment

AF

Air Force or Audio Frequency

ALB

Automated Link Builder

AM

Asset Management

Analysis

The post-processing or interpretation of the individual values, arrays, files of data, or execution information. (Source:both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A) Also: It is a careful study of something to learn about its parts, what they do, and how they are related to each other. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A) Analysis is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Analysis.

ANSC

Class A - Not Safety Critical. ANSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

AoA

Analysis of Alternatives

APPEL

Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership

APPS

Agency Principles and Processes

ARC

Ames Research Center

ASC

Class A - Safety Critical. ASC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

assure

As defined in NASA Standard 8739.8, assure is used when software assurance practitioners make certain that the specified software assurance, management, and engineering activities have been performed by others.

ATMOS

Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy

ATTR

Acceptance Test Readiness Review

Audit

A planned, independent and documented assessment to verify compliance to agreed-upon requirements.

BiCE

Best-in-Class Example. BiCE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Best-in-Class Example.

BIT

built in test

BNSC

Class B - Not Safety Critical. BNSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

BOE

basis of estimate

BP

Best Practice. BP is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Best Practice.

BPR

Baseline Performance Review

BSC

Class B - Safety Critical. BSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

BSP

Board Support Package

C

Center

C & I

Coding and Integration. See also C-I.

C-I

Coding and Integration. C-I is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Coding and Integration. Also C & I.

CAB

Change Authorization Board

CAD-CAM

computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing

CADRe

Cost Analysis Data Requirement

CAS

Credibility Assessment Scale

CCB

Change Control Board or Configuration Control Board

CCE

Center Chief Engineer. CCE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Center Chief Engineer.

CCP

Commercial Crew Program

CD

Center Director. CD is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Center Director. For tagging purposes, includes Center Engineer Tech Authority and Center designated Tech Authority and also can be used for Center.

CD*

Center Director or the Center Director's designed Engineering Technical Authority

CDR

Critical Design Review. CDR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Critical Design Review.

CE

NASA Chief Engineer

CEP

Complex Event Processing

CER

Code Error Rate or Cost Estimating Relationship

CERT_C

A secure coding standard that is composed of 89 rules and 132 recommendations for producing secure code.

CHMO

Chief Health and Medical Officer

CI

Configuration Item

CIO

Chief Information Officer

CLCS

Checkout Launch Control System

CM

Configuration Management. CM is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Configuration Management.

CMD

command

CMMI

Capability Maturity Model Integration

CMMI-DEV

CMMI for Development

CMP

Configuration Management Plan

CNSC

Class C - Not Safety Critical. CNSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

CO

Contracting Officer. Prepares acquisition approach, prepares solicitation, guides proposal evaluation, prepares contracts, prepares modifications to contracts. See Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

COCOMO

Constructive Cost Model

cohesion

A measure of how strongly related each piece of functionality expressed by the source code of a software module is

Computer Software Configuration Item

Computer Software Configuration Item. An aggregation of software that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Computer System

A system containing one or more computers and associated software. (Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765 Systems and software engineering—Vocabulary.) (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Contracted Software

Software created for a project by a contractor or subcontractor. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

COOP

Continuity of Operations Plan

CoP

Community of Practice

COTR

Contracting Officer Technical Representative. Works with CO to plan acquisition approach, prepare statement of work, evaluates proposals, determines the technical adequacy of proposed approach, monitor technical implementation. See Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

COTS

Commercial Off the Shelf

coupling

The degree to which each program module relies on each other in the other modules

Coverity SWAT

an old product name from the makers of Coverity software

CPU

Central Processing Unit

CR

Change Request

CSA

Configuration Status Accounting

CSAFS-SAFS

Central/Standard Autonomous File Server

CSC

Computer Software Component. A functionally or logically distinct part of a computer software configuration item, typically an aggregate of two or more software units (ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010 Systems and software engineering). CSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook indicating Class C - Safety Critical.

CSCI

Computer Software Configuration Items. An aggregation of software that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process (ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010 Systems and software engineering).

CSMA

Center OSMA. CSMA is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Center OSMA.

CSU

computer software unit

CT

Center Training Org.

CTO

Center Training Office. CTO is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Center Training Office.

CTT

Compatibility Test Trailer

DACUM

Developing a Curriculum

DAR

Decision Analysis and Resolution

DAS

Demand Access Service

Data

Information for computer processing (e.g., numbers, text, images, and sounds in a form that is suitable for storage in or processing by a computer). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

DBMS

Database Management System

DCD

Data Capture and Delivery

DCR

Database Change Request

DDA

data distribution assembly digital differential analyzer digital data acquisition

DDAS

Digital Data Acquisition System

DDI

Data Delivery Interfaces

DDP

Digital Data Processor

DDS

Detailed Design Specification

Design

Design is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Design.

Deviation

A documented authorization releasing a program or project from meeting a requirement before the requirement is put under configuration control at the level the requirement will be implemented. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

DGA

Designated Governing Authority

DID

Data Item Description

DLA

Design Logic Analysis

DNSC

Class D - Not Safety Critical. DNSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

DO

Defense Order

DoD

Department of Defense

DoDAF

Department of Defense Architecture Framework

DPC

designated point of contact

DR

Discrepancy Report

DRAM

Dynamic Random Access Memory

DSC

Class D - Safety Critical. DSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

DSRC

Dryden Space Research Center

DSS

Data Storage & Staging

DTF

Development and Test Facility

DTN

Delay Tolerant Network

DTR

Detailed Technical Review

Earned Value

The sum of budgeted cost for task and products that have actually been produced (completed or in progress) at a given time in the schedule. (Systems Engr. Handbook)

EC

Equipment Cost(s)

ECB

Engineering Change Board

ECC

Emergency Control Center

ECP

Engineering Change Proposal

ECR

Engineering Change Requests

EDG

Edison Design Group

EDL

Entry, Descent, and Landing

EEE

electrical, electronic, and electromechanical

EEI

Engineering Excellence Initiative

EEPROM

Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory

EET

End-to-End Test

Embedded Computer System

A computer system that is part of a larger system and performs some of the requirements of that system (Source: ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765 Systems and software engineering-Vocabulary.)

Embedded Software

Software that is part of a larger system and performs some of the requirements of that system (Definition from source document: ISO/IEC 24765:2009 Systems and Software Engineering Vocabulary.). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

ENC

Encoding/Decoding

ENSC

Class E - Not Safety Critical. ENSC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

ensure

As defined in NASA Standard 8739.8, ensure is used when software assurance practitioners themselves perform the specified software activities.

ER

Enhancement Report

ESC

Class E - Safety Critical. ESC is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

Establish and Maintain

The responsible project, organization, or individual must formulate, document, use/deploy, and keep current the object (usually a document, requirement, process, or policy). (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

ETA

Engineering Technical Authority

EVA

Extra Vehicular Activity

F

Class F software. F is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

FAQ

Frequently Asked Questions

FAR

Federal Acquisition Regulation or Federal Acquisition Requirement

FCA

Functional Configuration Audit

FDC

Failure Detection and Correction

FDIR

Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery

FDP

File Data Processing

FMEA

Failure Mode Effects Analysis

FMECA

Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis

FPGA

Field Programmable Gate Array

FRACAS

Failure Reporting and Corrective Action System

fred

maintainer

FRR

Flight Readiness Review. FRR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Flight Readiness Review.

FS

Flight System

FSW

Flight Software

FTA

Fault Tree Analysis

FTD

Fault Tolerant Design

FTE

Full-Time Equivalent

FTS

Frequency & Timing Subsystem

Function points

The functional user requirements of the software are identified and each one is categorized into one of five types: outputs, inquiries, inputs, internal files, and external interfaces. Once the function is identified and categorized into a type, it is then assessed for complexity and assigned a number of function points.

G

General. Also, Class G software. G is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

Gbps

Gigabyte per second

GCC

GNU Compiler Collection

GFE

Government Furnished Equipment

GIDEP

Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

Glueware

Software created to connect the off-the-shelf software/reused software with the rest of the system. It may take the form of adapters that modify interfaces or add missing functionality, firewalls that isolate the off-the-shelf software, or wrappers that check inputs and outputs to the off-the-shelf software and may modify to prevent failures. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

GN&C

Guidance, Navigation, and Control

GNC

guidance, navigation, and control

GNU

GNU is a recursive acronym for 'GNU's Not Unix' It is a Unix-like computer operating system developed by the GNU Project, composed wholly of free software, is based on the GNU Hurd kernel and is intended to be a complete Unix-compatible software system.

GOTS

Government Off-the-Shelf Software - This refers to Government-created software, usually from another project. The software was not created by the current developers (see software reuse). Usually, source code is included and documentation, including test and analysis results, is available. That is, the government is responsible for the GOTS software to be incorporated into another system. (Definition from source document: NASA-GB-8719.13, NASA Software Safety Guidebook.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

Government Off-The-Shelf (GOTS) Software

This refers to Government-created software, usually from another project. The software was not created by the current developers (see software reuse). Usually, source code is included and documentation, including test and analysis results, is available. That is, the government is responsible for the GOTS software to be incorporated into another system. (Definition from source document: NASA-GB-8719.13, NASA Software Safety Guidebook.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

GPS

Global Positioning System

GQIM

Goal/Question/Indicator/Metric (methodology).

GQM

Goal/Question/Metric (methodology).

GRC

Glenn Research Center

GS

Ground System

GSFC

Goddard Space Flight Center

GUI

Graphical User Interface

H

Class H software. H is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook.

HDBK

Handbook

Heritage

Software products (architecture, code, requirements) written specifically for one project and then, without prior planning during its initial development, found to be useful on other projects. See software reuse. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

HLD

High Level Design

hover-over

The ability to embed definitions or other information about terms in the main body of the text.

HQCE

NASA OCE. HQCE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with NASA OCE.

HQSMA

NASA OSMA. HQSMA is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with NASA OSMA.

HW

Hardware

HWCI

Hardware Configuration Items

I&T

Integration and Test

IA

Information Assurance or Independent Assessment.

IBA

IV&V Board of Advisors

IBD

IV&V Board of Directors

ICD

Interface Control Document

IDD

Interface Design Description

IDE

Integrated Development Environment

IEC

International Electrotechnical Commission

IEEE

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IF

Intermediate Frequency or Inter-Facility Link

IMS

Integrated Master Schedule

In Over

Insight/Oversight. In/Over is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Insight/Oversight. (Note for ed. - wiki does not allow a forward slash in a page title.)

IN

Integrated Network

INA

Integrated Network Architecture

Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V)

Verification and validation performed by an organization that is technically, managerially, and financially independent of the development organization (ISO/IEC 24765:2008 systems and software engineering vocabulary). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

INM

Integrated Network Management

INOC

Integrated Network Operations Center

insight

Surveillance mode requiring the monitoring of customer-identified metrics and contracted milestones. Insight is a continuum that can range from low intensity, such as reviewing quarterly reports, to high intensity, such as performing surveys and reviews. (Definitions from source document: NPR 8735.2, Management of Government Safety and Mission Quality Assurance Surveillance Functions for NASA Contracts.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

IO

Input/Output

IOC

Initial Operational Capability

IP

Intellectual Property or Internet Protocol

IPAO

Independent Program Assessment Office

IPEP

IV&V Project Execution Plan

IPS

Institutional Programmatic Support

IR

Inheritance Review

IRD

Interface Requirements Document

ISD

Information Systems Division

ISE

Integrated Service Execution

ISO

International Standards Organization

ISS

International Space Station

ISSO

Information System Security Officer

IT

Information Technology

ITAR

International Traffic in Arms Regulations

iterative

The “application of a process to the same product or set of products to correct a discovered discrepancy or other variation from requirements,”

IV&V

Independent Verification and Validation. Verification and validation performed by an organization that is technically, managerially, and financially independent of the development organization (ISO/IEC 24765:2008 systems and software engineering vocabulary). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

IVV

Also IV&V. See Independent Verification and Validation. See also VV. IVV is the tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to indicate the IV&V Program as an organization have responsibility in regards to a requirement in 7150.2. IVV is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with IV&V.

IVVF

IV&V Facility

JPL

Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JSC

Johnson Space Center

KDP

Key Decision Point. (NPR 7150.2A) Each phase of the NASA Program or Project life cycle is typically marked by a Key Decision Point (KDP), which usually is associated with a prescribed major design review. A KDP is an event wherein the decision authority determines the readiness of a program/project to progress to the next phase of the life cycle. See also gate. (NPR 7150.2B)

KSC

Kennedy Space Center

KSLOC

Thousands of Source Lines of Code

LAN

Local Area Network

LaRC

Langley Research Center

LCO

Link Control Operators

Legacy

Software products (architecture, code, requirements) written specifically for one project and then, without prior planning during its initial development, found to be useful on other projects. See software reuse. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

LIDAR

Light Detection and Ranging

Life cycle

(noun) The totality of a program or project extending from formulation through implementation encompassing the elements of design, development, verification, production, operation, maintenance, support and disposal. (NPR 8705.2B, Appendix A) life-cycle (hyphenated) is an adjective describing an object (noun) as related to a software life cycle.

LL

Lessons Learned. LL is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Lessons Learned.

LLD

Low Level Design

LLDP

Link Layer Data Processor

LOC

Lines of Code

LOE

Level of Effort

LPS

Launch Processing System

LRM

Low Rate Modem

LRU

Line Replacable Unit or Lowest Replacable Unit

M&A

Measurement and Analysis. See also M-A.

M&S

Models and Simulations

M-A

Measurement and Analysis. M-A is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Measurement and Analysis. Also M&A.

MA

Multiple Access

Major Engineering Facility

Used in this document to show research, development, test, or simulation facilities representing a significant NASA investment which contains software that supports programs and projects managed under NPR 7120.5, NPR 7120.7, or NPR 7120.8. Examples include: high-fidelity, motion-base flight simulator facilities (e.g., Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames), wind tunnels (e.g., National Transonic Facility at LaRC), vacuum chambers (e.g., Space Power Facility at GRC/Plum Brook), air traffic control facilities (e.g., North Texas Research Station), and engine test stands (e.g., J-2X test stand at Stennis Space Center). Related major facility designations are contained in NPR 8800.15, Section 3.8.1, Designation of Major Facilities. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

Major Engineering Research Facility

Used in this document to show research, development, test, or simulation facilities representing a significant NASA investment (facilities with a Current Replace Value (CRV) equal to or greater than 50 million dollars) which contains software that supports programs and projects managed under NPR 7120.5, NPR 7120.7, or NPR 7120.8 and that have a Mission Dependency Index value equal to or greater than 70. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Major Research Facility

Used in this document to show research, development, test, or simulation facilities representing a significant NASA investment which contains software that supports programs and projects managed under NPR 7120.5, NPR 7120.7, or NPR 7120.8. Examples include: high-fidelity, motion-base flight simulator facilities (e.g., Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames), wind tunnels (e.g., National Transonic Facility at LaRC), vacuum chambers (e.g., Space Power Facility at GRC/Plum Brook), air traffic control facilities (e.g., North Texas Research Station), and engine test stands (e.g., J-2X test stand at Stennis Space Center). Related major facility designations are contained in NPR 8800.15, Section 3.8.1, Designation of Major Facilities. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

Mathematical Model

The mathematical equations, boundary values, initial conditions, and modeling data needed to describe the conceptual model (ASME V&V 10). (Definition from source document: NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

MBDS

Model Based Development System

MCO

Mars Climate Orbiter

MCR

Mission Concept Review. MCR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Mission Concept Review.

MD

Each Mission Directorate. MD is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Mission Directorate.

MDBS

Model Based Development System

MDM

Metadata Manager

MDR

Mission Definition Review. MDR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Mission Definition Review.

MER

Mars Exploration Rover

MIB

Mishap Investigation Board

MICD

Mechanical Interface Control Drawing

MISRA C

MISRA C is a software development standard for the C programming language developed by MISRA (Motor Industry Software Reliability Association).

Mission Critical

Item or function that must retain its operational capability to assure no mission failure (i.e., for mission success). (Definition from source document: NPR 8715.3, NASA General Safety Manual Program Requirements.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

ML

Maturity Level

MO

Mars Observer

MOA

Memorandum of Agreement

MOC

Mission Operations Center

MoDAF

British Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework

Model

A description or representation of a system, entity, phenomena, or process. (Definition from source document: NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations.) Only for the purpose of this document, the term model refers to only those models which are implemented in software. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

MODEM

Modulator / demodulator

Modified Off-The-Shelf (MOTS) Software

When COTS, legacy/heritage software is reused, or heritage software is changed, the product is considered modified. The changes can include all or part of the software products and may involve additions, deletions, and specific alterations. An argument can be made that any alterations to the code and/or design of an off-the-shelf software component constitutes modification, but the common usage allows for some percentage of change before the off-the-shelf software is declared to be MOTS software. This may include the changes to the application shell and/or glueware to add or protect against certain features and not to the off-the-shelf software system code directly. See off-the-shelf. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Monte Carlo Method

Monte Carlo methods use random numbers to obtain numerical solutions when analytical methods are too difficult to use. When using Monte Carlo methods with cost models, they are used to simulate the estimated cost distribution.

MOTS

Modified/Modifiable/Military off-the-shelf Software

MOU

Memorandum of Understanding

MPL

Mars Polar Lander

MRC

Monthly Recurring Cost(s)

MRR

Mission Readiness Review

MSFC

Marshall Space Flight Center

MSG

Management Steering Group

MSL

Mars Science Laboratory

MSR

Monthly Status Review

MSSC

Mission Software Steering Committee

MTBF

Mean Time Between Failures

MTTR

Mean Time to Repair

MUX

Multiplex

NARA

National Archives and Records Administration

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NC&C

Network Asset Configuration & Control

NCS

Network Control System

NDIA

National Defense Industrial Association

NEN

NASA Engineering Network

NGN

NASA Ground Network

NHB

NASA Handbook

NISN

NASA Integrated Services Network

NIST

National Institute of Technology

NOC

Network Operations Center

NOCC

Network Operations Control Center

NODIS

NASA Online Directives Information System

non-null set

a set that must contain at least one member

NON

Network Operations Node

NPAS

Network Planning & Analysis System

NPD

NASA Policy Directive

NPR

NASA Procedural Requirement

NRC

Non-Recurring Cost(s)

NRT

Near Real-Time

NS

Network Scheduling

NSAP

Network Service Assurance Plan

NSC

Non-Safety Critical

NSEI

NASA Software Engineering Initiative

NSEII

NASA Software Engineering Initiative Implementation

NSEIIP

NASA Software Engineering Initiative Implementation Plan

NSR

Nominal Slow Rate

NTP

Network Time Protocol

NTR

Network Service Assurance Plan (NSAP) Technology Refresh

O&M

Operations & Maintenance

OCE

Office of the Chief Engineer

OCIO

Office of the Chief Information Officer

ODIN

Outsourcing Desktop Initiative for NASA

Off-The-Shelf Software

Software not developed in-house or by a contractor for the specific project now underway. The software is generally developed for a different purpose than the current project. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A) Used in practice as umbrella for COTS, GOTS, and MOTS. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

OGOTS

Open Government Off the Shelf. An Open GOTS (OGOTS) project is a GOTS project which uses multiple-organization collaborative development approaches to develop and maintain software, in a manner similar to OSS. (Definition from: http://journal.thedacs.com/issue/56/175)

OMG

Object Management Group

OOD

Object Oriented Design

Open Source Software (OSS)

Software that the recipient is free to use for any purpose: to make copies of the software and to distribute the copies without payment of royalties, to modify the software and to distribute the modified software without payment of royalties, to access and use the source code of the software, and to combine the software with other software in accordance with open-source licenses/agreements. Open-source software is a sub-category of Publicly Releasable software. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A.)

Operational Software

Software that has been accepted and deployed, delivered to its customer, or is deployed in its intended environment. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

ORR

Operational Readiness Review. ORR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Operational Readiness Review.

OSI

Open Systems Interconnection

OSMA

Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

OSP

Orbital Space Plane

OSS

Open Source Software

OTS

Off the Shelf

oversight

Oversight is a surveillance process that implies a more active supervision of a contractor's processes and decision making. Oversight is often used in problem areas. (From the NASA Program and Project Management Handbook (NPR 7120.5 Handbook, February, 2010).

P

Project

P Center

P ( C ) = P(Center) - Per approved Center defined process which meets a non-empty subset of the full requirement.

P(C)

P ( C ) = P(Center) - Per approved Center defined process which meets a non-empty subset of the full requirement.

P(C) SO

P(C) + SO = P (Center) + SO - Responsible party is required to meet this requirement to the extent necessary to satisfy safety critical aspects of the software and follow Center defined P (Center) processes for other aspects of the software.

PAL

Process Asset Library

PAR

Published Appraisal Results

PBMA

Process Based Mission Assurance

PBRA

Portfolio Based Risk Assessment

PC

Project Closeout. PC is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project Closeout.

PCA

Physical Configuration Audit

PDF

Probability Distribution function

PDR

Preliminary Design Review. PDR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Preliminary Design Review.

PE

Process Engineering. PE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Process Engineering.

PERT

Program Evaluation and Review Technique

PF

Project Formulation. PF is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project Formulation.

PHA

Preliminary Hazard Analysis

PI

Project Implementation. PI is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project Implementation.

Plan

Plan is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Plans. Not to be confused with the tag Acq_Plan (Acquisition Plan). See also Acq_Plan.

PLD

Programmable Logic Device.

PLOP

physical link operations procedure

PM

Project Manager. PM is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project.

PM&C

Project Monitoring and Control. See also PM-C.

PM-C

Project Monitoring and Control. PM-C is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project Monitoring and Control.

PMC

Process Monitoring and Control

PMSR

Preliminary Systems & Mission Review

POA&M

Plan of actions and milestones

POC

point of contact

PP

Project Planning. PP is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Project Planning.

PR

Product Release. PR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Product Release.

PRA

Probabilistic Risk Assessment

PRACA

Problem Report and Corrective Action

PRACAS

Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

Primary Mission Objectives

Outcomes expected to be accomplished which are closely associated with the reason the mission was proposed, funded, developed, and operated (e.g., objectives related to top-level requirements or their flow down). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Procedure

Procedure is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Procedures.

Process

Process is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Processes.

Process Asset Library (PAL)

A collection of process asset holdings that can be used by an organization or project. (Definition from source document: CMMI^®^ for- Systems Engineering/Software Engineering/Integrated Product and Process Development Supplier Sourcing.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Prod_Desc

Prod_Desc is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Product Descriptions.

Program

A strategic investment by a Mission Directorate or Mission Support Office that has a defined architecture and/or technical approach, requirements, funding level, and a management structure that initiates and directs one or more projects. A program defines a strategic direction that the Agency has identified as critical. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Project

A specific investment having defined goals, objectives, requirements, life-cycle cost, a beginning, and an end. A project yields new or revised products or services that directly address NASA's strategic needs. They may be performed wholly in-house; by Government, industry, academia partnerships, or through contracts with private industry. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Project Manager

Approves a procurement plan. See Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

PROM

Persistent memory that cannot be modified.

PRR

Production Readiness Review. PRR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Production Readiness Review.

PSLA

Project Service Level Agreements

QA

Quality Assurance

QPSK

quadrature phase-shift keying

RAF

Requirements Analysis Form

RASDS

Reference Architecture for Space Data Systems

RBA

Risk-Based Assessment

Records

Records is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Records.

recursive

The repeated application of processes to design next lower layer system products or to realize next upper layer end products within the system structure.

relevant stakeholders

Stakeholders that are identified for involvement in specified activities and are included in a plan. See also Stakeholder.

Relevant Stakeholder

A stakeholder that is identified for involvement in specified activities and is included in a plan. See also Stakeholder.

Reports

Reports is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Reports.

Reuse

See software reuse. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

RFA

Request for Action

RFP

Request for Proposal

RID

Review Item Disposition.

Risk Management

An organized, systematic decision-making process that efficiently identifies, analyzes, plans, tracks, controls, communicates, and documents risk to increase the likelihood of achieving program/project goals. (Definition from source document: NPR 8735.2, Management of Government Quality Safety and Mission Assurance Surveillance Functions for NASA Contracts, NPR7150.2B - Appendix A.) Risk management includes Risk-Informed Decision Making and Continuous Risk Management in an integrated framework. This is done to foster proactive risk management, to better inform decision making through better use of risk information, and then to more effectively manage implementation risks by focusing the Continuous Risk Management process on the baseline performance requirements emerging from the Risk-Informed Decision-Making process. (Definition from source document: NPR 8000.4, Agency Risk Management Procedural Requirements.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

RM-ODP

Reference Model of Open Distributed Processing

ROI

return on investment

ROM

Rough Order of Magnitude: An estimate of the resource required that is based on a person's experience and not on a summation of individual cost estimates.

RT

Real Time

RTOS

Real-Time Operating System

RTU

Remote Terminal Unit

SA

NASA Chief Safety and Mission Assurance. Software Assurance. SA is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Software Assurance.

SA&R

Service Accountability and Reporting

SACR

Software Assurance Classification Report

Safety Compliance Data Package

The safety compliance data package (SCDP) shall document the identification, causes, controls, and verification methods for each hazard. (1999 NASA Dryden document).

Safety-Critical Software

See definition in NASA-STD-8719.13, Software Safety Standard. (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

SAFS

Standard Autonomous File Server

SAM

Supplier Agreement Management. Software Assurance Manager. SAM is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Software Assurance Manager.

SAN

Storage Area Network

SAP

Software Assurance Plan

SAR

System Acceptance Review. SAR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with System Acceptance Review.

SARP

Software Assurance Research Program

SATERN

System for Administration, Training and Educational Resources for NASA

SBU

Sensitive But Unclassified

SC

Safety Critical

SCAMPI

Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement

SCM

Software Configuration Management

SCMP

Software Configuration Management Plan

SCR

Software Change Request

Scripts

A sequence of automated computer commands embedded in a program that tells the program to execute a specific procedure (e.g., files with monitoring, logic, or commands used by software to automate a process or procedure). (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

SDD

Software Design Description/Document

SDLC

Software Development Life Cycle

SDP

Software Development Plan

SDR

System Definition Review. System Design Review. SDR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with System Design Review.

SDRAM

Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory.

SEB

Source Evaluation Board

SED

Software Engineering Division

SEI

Software Engineering Institute

SEIP

Software Engineering Initiative Plan

SEL

Software Engineering Laboratory

SEMP

Systems Engineering Management Plan

Sensitivity Analysis

The study of how the variation in the output of a model can be apportioned to different sources of variation in the model input and parameters. (Definition from source document: NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

SEPG

Software Engineering Process Group

SGL

Space Ground Link

SIMS

Software Inventory Management System

Simulation

The imitation of the characteristics of a system, entity, phenomena, or process using a computational model. (Definition from source document: NASA-STD-7009, Standard for Models and Simulations.) Only for the purpose of this document, the term simulation refers to only those simulations which are implemented in software. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

SIR

System Integration Review. SIR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with System Integration Review.

SIS

Software Interface Specification

SLA

Service Level Agreement

SLOC

Source Lines of Code

SLWT

Super Light Weight Tank

SM

Supplier Monitoring. SM is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Supplier Monitoring.

SMA

Safety and Mission Assurance. Also S&MA. See also OSMA.

SMARTS

Safety and Mission Assurance Requirements Tracking System. SMARTS is from the NASA SMART program that Dr. John Lyver developed to pull requirements from standards and NPRs into one database for easy searching.

SMDP

Software Management and Development Plan

SME

Subject Matter Expert

SMP

Software Management Plan

SMR

Software Metrics Report

SMSR

Safety and Mission Success Review

SNE-E

Space Network Extension - East

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

SO

SO - 'Safety Only' - Project is required to meet this requirement to the extent necessary to satisfy safety critical aspects of the software.

SOD

Supervisor On Duty

Software

Computer programs, procedures, scripts, rules, and associated documentation and data pertaining to the development and operation of a computer system. Software includes programs and data. This also includes COTS, GOTS, MOTS, reused software, auto generated code, embedded software, firmware, and open source software components. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Architecture

The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the properties of those components, and the relationships between them. The term also refers to documentation of a system's software architecture. Documenting software architecture facilitates communication between stakeholders, documents early decisions about high-level design, and allows reuse of design components and patterns between projects. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Assurance

The planned and systematic set of activities that ensure that software life cycle processes and products conform to requirements, standards, and procedures. For NASA, this includes the disciplines of software quality (functions of software quality engineering, software quality assurance, and software quality control), software safety, software reliability, software verification and validation, and IV&V. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A.)

Software Engineering

The application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software: that is, the application of engineering to software. (Definition from source document: IEEE 610.12-1990, IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Item

Source code, object code, control code, control data, or a collection of these items. (Source: NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A.)

Software Lead Engineer

Prepares procurement plan, prepares SOW software requirements and software data requirements for the contract, monitors execution of contract, conducts trade studies, engineering analyses. See Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

Software Peer Inspection

A visual examination of a software product to detect and identify software anomalies, including errors and deviations from standards and specifications (IEEE 1028-2008 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews and Audits). Guidelines for software peer reviews/inspections are contained in NASA-STD-2202-93, NASA Software Formal Inspection Standard. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Peer Review

A visual examination of a software product to detect and identify software anomalies, including errors and deviations from standards and specifications (IEEE 1028-2008 IEEE Standard for Software Reviews and Audits). Guidelines for software peer reviews/inspections are contained in NASA-STD-2202-93, NASA Software Formal Inspection Standard. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Reuse

A software product developed for one use but having other uses or one developed specifically to be usable on multiple projects or in multiple roles on one project. Examples include, but are not limited to, COTS products, acquirer-furnished software products, software products in reuse libraries, and pre-existing developer software products. Each use may include all or part of the software product and may involve its modification. This term can be applied to any software product (such as, requirements and architectures), not just to software code itself. Often this is software previously written by an in-house development team and used on a different project. GOTS software would come under this category if the product is supplied from one Government project to another Government project. (Definition from source document: NASA-GB-8719.13, NASA Software Safety Guidebook.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Technical Authority

Prior to contract release, verify that the SOW includes the complete flow down of the agency and Center software requirements [recommended practice]. See also Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

Software Unit

(1) Separately compilable piece of code (2) the lowest element in one or more software components

Software Validation

Confirmation that the product, as provided (or as it will be provided), fulfills its intended use. In other words, validation ensures that you built the right thing. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

Software Verification

Confirmation that work products properly reflect the requirements specified for them. In other words, verification ensures that you built it correctly. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

SOW

Statement of Work

SPAN

Software Process Across NASA

SPC

Shuttle Processing Contract

SpecTRM

Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology

SPWG

Space Protection Working Group

SQA

Software Quality Assurance

SQAP

Software Quality Assurance Plan

SRA

Software Release Authority. SRA is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Software Release Authority.

SRE

Software Requirements Engineer. SRE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Software Requirements Engineer.

SRR

System Requirements Review. SRR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with System Requirements Review.

SRRA

Software Release Request Authorization

SRS

Software Requirement Specification

SSA

Source Selection Authority

SSAMP

Software Supplier Agreement Management Plan

SSC

Stennis Space Center

SSE

Software Systems Engineer. SSE is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Software Systems Engineer.

SSP

Software Safety Plan

stakeholder

A group or individual affected or in some way accountable for the outcome of an undertaking.

Static Analysis

The process of evaluating a system or component based on its form, structure, content, or documentation. (Definition from source document: ISO/IEC 24765:2008 systems and software engineering vocabulary.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

STEP

SMA (Safety and Mission Assurance) Technical Excellence Program

STI

Scientific and Technical Information

STP

Software Test Plan

STPr

Software Test Procedure

STR

Software Test Report

STS

Shuttle Transportation System

STSC

Software Technology Support Center

Studies

Studies is a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Studies.

Subsystem

A secondary or subordinate system within a larger system. (Definition from source document: ISO/IEC 24765:2008 systems and software engineering vocabulary.) (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

SUM

Software User's Manual

Supplier

(1) organization or individual that enters into an agreement with the acquirer for the supply of a product or service (ISO/IEC 12207, ISO/IEC 15288, ISO/IEC 15939) (2) organization that develops some or all of the project deliverables for an acquirer (IEEE 1058-1998) (3) individual or organization that enters into a contract with the acquirer for the supply of a system, software product or software service under the terms of the contract (ISO/IEC 25040) (4) a person or organization that enters into a contract with the acquirer for the supply of a software product (which may be part of a system) under the terms of the contract (IEEE 1062, 1998 Edition (R2002)) (5) the person, or persons, who produce a product for a customer (IEEE 830-1998 ) (6) organization or part of an organization that is external to the service provider's organization and enters into a contract with the service provider to contribute to the design, transition, delivery and improvement of a service or services or processes (ISO/IEC 20000-1) From IEEE Resource listed in the blue box at the top of this terms list.

Sus_Engr

Sustaining Engineering and Maintenance. Sus_Engr is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Sustaining Engineering and Maintenance.

SVD

Software Version Description

SVVP

Software Verification and Validation Plan

SW

Software

SWE

software engineering requirement

SWE 301

SWE 301 is the software engineering course for software fundamentals. It is described in the curricula found at the OCE software training site.

SWEET

Software Engineering Technical Excellence Training

SWEHB

Software Engineering Handbook.

SWG

Software Working Group

SwRR

Software Requirements Review

SysML

Systems Modelling Language

System

The combination of elements that function together to produce the capability required to meet a need. The elements include hardware, software, equipment, facilities, personnel, processes, and procedures needed for this purpose. (Definition from source document: NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements.) (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

System Engineer

Conducts trade studies, engineering analyses. See Topic 7.3 - Acquisition Guidance.

TA

Engineering Technical Authority for NPR 7150.2 by Requirement (see Note 3)

Tag

Tagging is an additional way for users to browse and discover content within the SWEWHB. It also provides metadata about the Handbook sections, requirements numbers (i.e., SWE-110), and NASA PAL attachments. The term 'tag' is identical to the term 'label' in the context of the Handbook.

TBD

To Be Determined

TBR

To Be Resolved

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

TDN

Temporal Dependence Network

Test Term

Test definition.

TIM

Technical Interface Meeting

TM

technical manual or time management

TOGAF

The Open Group Architecture Forum

Tool

Tool is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Tools.

TPM

Technical Performance Measures

Train

Train is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Training.

Transition Criteria

An event or set of conditions which, when satisfied, allows a process to begin (enter) or end (exit).

TRR

Test Readiness Review. TRR is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Test Readiness Review.

TS&R

Technical Scope and Rigor

TT&C

Tracking, Telemetry and Command

UAT

User Acceptance Testing

UDP

User Datagram Protocol

UDTP

User Data Transfer Proxy

UIP

User Interface Proxy

ULR

Uplink Exciter & Ranging

UML

Unified Modeling Language

Uncertainty

(1) The estimated amount or percentage by which an observed or calculated value may differ from the true value. (2) A broad and general term used to describe an imperfect state of knowledge or a variability resulting from a variety of factors including, but not limited to, lack of knowledge, applicability of information, physical variation, randomness or stochastic behavior, indeterminacy, judgment, and approximation (adapted from NPR 8715.3B, NASA General Safety Program Requirements). (Source: NPR 7150.2A - Appendix A)

USA

United Space Alliance

USB

Universal Serial Bus

USG

User Service Gateway

V&V

Verification and Validation. See also V-V.

V-V

Verification and Validation. V-V is also a search tag used in this Software Engineering Handbook to designate a subject relationship with Verification and Validation.

VDD

Version Description Document

VPN

Virtual Private Network

VV

IV&V Program

Waiver

A documented authorization intentionally releasing a program or project from meeting a requirement after the requirement is put under configuration control at the level the requirement will be implemented. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

WAN

Wide Area Network

WBS

Work Breakdown Structure

WFF

Wallops Flight Facility

wiki

A wiki is a website whose users can add, modify, or delete its content via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. The SWEHB wiki only allows suggestions for additions, modifications, or deletions. Actual changes will be reviewed and, if approved, made by the SWEHB development team.

Wrapper

See glueware definition. (Source: both NPR 7150.2A and NPR 7150.2B - Appendix A)

WSTF

White Sands Test Facility

WY

Work Year

WYE

Work Year Equivalent

X

X - 'Required' - Responsible party is required to meet the requirement as written.

X (SO if D-E)

X (SO if D-E) - Required for A-C, Required for D-E if SO ('Safety Only' - Project is required to meet this requirement to the extent necessary to satisfy safety critical aspects of the software.)

XMTR

Transmitter

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